Benefits and Challenges
Today’s megapixel cameras bring a host of benefits to the table
- By Jeff Whitney
- Apr 01, 2018
The first IP network-based megapixel (MP) cameras
were a disruptive technology. They were often more
expensive on a unit basis than their familiar analog
counterparts. Early adopters dealt with higher cost,
integration limits, reliability issues, and basic feature
sets. Yet as these issues were worked out, megapixel cameras became
the accepted norm, largely pushing aside new development in older
Testing vs. Specification Sheets
Image quality varies from vendor to vendor, and sometimes from
within a single vendor’s own camera lines. While different vendors
may tout similar capabilities such as MP ratings, bandwidth consumption,
low light and WDR technology, only an actual side-byside
comparison will demonstrate significant differences. Such a test
in an actual or closely simulated environment will help ensure that the
selected camera meets the project objectives.
For example, which camera picks up a person’s face or a vehicle’s
license plate the best? Which one delivers the color that most closely
matches that actual object or scene? Which one works best in varying
lighting conditions during the day or night?
Single Sensor, PTZ, or Multi-Sensor
Megapixel cameras are offered in many configurations, including
single-sensor fixed view, PTZs or multi-sensors.
A single sensor megapixel camera delivers superior image quality
with more detail over a larger area than does a typical analog
or standard IP camera (see resolution chart). This means that fewer
cameras can be used to cover a similar area for a new project. When
replacing existing cameras, new coverage zones should be calculated to maximize the benefit of the higher resolution.
PTZs have long been used to reduce the number of single-sensor
cameras to cover a specific area. The design of a PTZ leads to only a
single area being the focus of attention at any one point in time, leaving
the rest of the area without coverage.
Multi-sensor megapixel cameras, first introduced by Arecont Vision
in 2006, are now commonly used replacements for legacy PTZ
technology, and available from many vendors. While switching PTZs
from analog to megapixel improved their image quality, the optics
package, no matter how good, can still only cover one area at a time.
Multi-sensor panoramic cameras have grown in popularity because
they offer non-stop high-resolution area coverage indoors or out.
When zoomed into a particular area, the rest of the scene is still monitored,
streamed, and recorded with no loss of situational awareness.
Four megapixel sensors offering either 180-degree or 360-degree
panoramic views are standard in the best models. Multi-sensors further
reduce costs, not just in requiring fewer cameras (as in image
below), but also because the best models integrate with leading VMS/
NVR systems for more choices, and require only a single IP address,
single PoE cable, and a single VMS license camera.
Panoramic multi-sensor cameras views are typically preset at the
factory, so that once installed, only the focus needs to be adjusted,
making installation quite easy.
Panoramic vs. Adjustable-View
Another new technology emerged in 2014 when Arecont Vision introduced
the industry’s first adjustable-view or omnidirectional multisensors.
Other vendors have now begun introducing their own models.
Like their panoramic brethren, the best omnidirectional cameras
typically offer four megapixel sensors, requiring only single PoE cable,
IP address, and VMS/NVR license.
The main difference from a panoramic camera is that in an omnidirectional
version, all four sensors can be thought of as separate
cameras in a single enclosure. A wide range of views can be selected, an
assembly line view perhaps, a corner view with three sides covered plus
the area below, a traffic circle, an entire large room or facility, or much
more. Each sensor can be adjusted for specific coverage requirements.
The lowest cost omnidirectional cameras are completely manual
for setup, allowing the user to move each sensor to the correct position
and then focusing individually.
Midrange models can be remotely focused once the sensor has
been positioned, simplifying the process.
The newest omnidirectional models can be completely setup up
remotely. The installer simply hangs or mounts the camera, then dismounts
the ladder or lift, and moves the sensors to the correct position
and focuses as required, from the safety of the ground using a
computer. This allows different views to be selected when needed,
such as in a stadium for a concert one night and professional sports
the next, or for other desired viewing adjustments without requiring
physically touching the camera.
The biggest concern regarding megapixel cameras today is around
cybersecurity. This issue was not on most security professional’s list
of issues only a short time ago.
This has changed as a result of many high-profile media reports
of security exploits that maliciously repurpose cameras, NVRs, and
supporting infrastructure for use in cyberattacks or in propagating
viruses and malware. Others may call home to a foreign country, providing
unknown amounts of video and data.
Some megapixel cameras, like the Arecont Vision-brand, are by
their internal architecture unable to be repurposed for use in cyberattacks.
Other vendors are developing or already deploying technology
to protect cameras from cyberattack, either as victims or propagators.
Following industry standards, implementing security recommendations,
and educating users are all cornerstones to cybersecurity
while the industry develops new technologies to better combat the
threat to cameras and supporting infrastructure.
Security professionals can immediately address many of the issues
in the short term by following IT best practices. Here’s a short list of
recommendations to consider.
Every environment and risk level is different for surveillance systems,
and the devices that compose them.
In closing, megapixel cameras were a disruptive technology when
introduced for manufacturers, installers, users, and the industry
overall. Beneficial and exciting new technologies and features will
continue to make their way into network camera
technologies and video surveillance systems, and
further increase their value and possible applications.
Keeping the topics discussed article in mind
will help deliver successful surveillance projects.
This article originally appeared in the April 2018 issue of Security Today.